Thursday, December 18, 2014
Assalam Alaikum Wa Rahmatullah Wa Barakatahu

Imam Al-Nawawi's Riyad-us-Saliheen:Chapter 1

Imam Al-Nawawi's Riyad-us-Saliheen:Chapter 1


Sincerity and Significance of Intentions and all Actions, Apparent and Hidden

Allah, the Exalted, says:

"And they were commanded not, but that they should worship Allah, and worship none but Him Alone (abstaining from ascribing partners to Him), and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat) and give Zakat, and that is the right religion.'' (98:5)

"It is neither their meat nor their blood that reaches Allah, but it is piety from you that reaches Him.'' (22:37)

"Say (O Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) ): Whether you hide what is in your breasts or reveal it, Allah knows it". (3:29)

1. Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him), reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, "The deeds are considered by the intentions, and a person will get the reward according to his intention. So whoever emigrated for Allah and His Messenger, his emigration will be for Allah and His Messenger; and whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration would be for what he emigrated for".
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Commentary: According to some Ahadith, the reason for this Hadith  is that a person sent a proposal of marriage to a woman named Umm Qais, which she turned down saying that he should have to emigrate to Al-Madinah for it. Accordingly, he did it for this specific purpose, and the two were married there. On account of this event, the man came to be known among the Companions as Muhajir Umm Qais.

On the basis of this Hadith, 'Ulama' are of the unanimous opinion that the real basis of one's actions is Niyyah (intention) and everyone will be requited according to his Niyyah. It is true that Niyyah is founded in one's heart, that is to say, one has first to make up one's mind for what he intends to do and he should not express it verbally. In fact, the latter is a Bid`ah (innovation in religion) because no proof of it is found in Shariah.

The point which becomes evident from this Hadith is that Ikhlas (sincerity) is a must for every action. In other words, in every righteous deed, one should seek only the Pleasure of Allah; otherwise, it will not be accepted by Allah.

2. Narrated 'A`ishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, "An army will raid the Ka`bah and when it reaches a desert land, all of them will be swallowed up by the earth.'' She asked; "O Messenger of Allah! Why all of them?'' He answered, "All of them will be swallowed by the earth but they will be raised for Judgement according to their intentions.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Commentary:  Everyone will be rewarded or punished according to his aim and intention. This Hadith also proves that the company of depraved persons is extremely dangerous. Whose army would it be, which has been referred to in the Hadith, and when will it invade Ka`bah, is a matter known to Allah Alone. Such prophecies are a part of the Unseen world. Since they come in the category of the miracles of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), it is necessary to believe in their veracity and occurrence. Believing in such prophesies is also essential because they were revealed by Allah).

3. A`ishah  (May Allah be pleased with her) narrated that the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, "There is no emigration after the conquest (of Makkah) but only Jihad [(striving and fighting in the cause of Allah) will continue] and good intention.* So if you are summoned to fight, go forth.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

*. Intention according to An-Nawawi: It means that goodness which ceased to continue by the cessation of emigration can still be obtained by Jihad and by intending accomplishing good deeds.

Commentary. When a country or a region is regarded as Dar-ul-Islam (land of Islam), it is not necessary to migrate from it to some other place. It is, however, obligatory to emigrate from such regions which are Dar-ul-Kufr (land of infidels) and where it is difficult to adhere to Islamic injunctions. It is also evident from this Hadith that when it is not necessary to migrate from one Islamic country to another then it is also not permitted by the Shari`ah to leave an Islamic country to settle permanently in Dar-ul-Kufr only for the reason that the latter has plenty of wealth and social welfare. Unfortunately, Muslims today are afflicted with this disease. The transfer of their capital and talent to Dar-ul-Kufr is indeed very disturbing because on one side these two factors are lending support to the economy of  Bilad-ul-Kufr (countries of infidels) and on the other, obscenity and indecency that are common in such countries, are becoming increasingly common among the Muslims too.

Another highly important reason for the prohibition of migration of Muslims to Dar-ul-Kufr is that it goes against the spirit as well as their readiness for Jihad fi sabilillah (striving and fighting in the way of Allah). This spirit and readiness must be kept always alive so that the Muslims may respond at once to the call of Jihad whenever the need for it arises anywhere.

4.  Jabir bin Abdullah Al-Ansari (May Allah be pleasedwith them) reported: We accompanied the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) in an expedition when he said, "There are some men in Al-Madinah who are with you wherever you march and whichever valley you cross. They have not joined you in person because of their illness.'' In another version he said: "They share the reward with you.''
[Muslim].

It is narrated by Bukhari from Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him): We were coming back from the battle of Tabuk with the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) when he remarked, "There are people whom we left behind in Al-Madinah who accompanied us in spirit in every pass and valley we crossed. They remained behind for a valid excuse.''

Commentary:  What we learn from this Hadith is that if the intention and spirit of Jihad are present in the heart of a Muslim but physically he is unable to take part in it for valid reasons, he will get the reward of Jihad without even his actual participation in it.

5.  Ma`n bin Yazid bin Akhnas (May Allah be pleased with them) (he, his father and his grandfather, all were Companions) reported: My father set aside some dinars for charity and gave them to a man in the mosque. I went to that man and took back those dinars. He said: "I had not intended you to be given.'' So we went to Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam), and put forth the matter before him. He said to my father, "Yazid, you have been rewarded for what you intended.'' And he said to me, "Ma`n, you are entitled to what you have taken.''
[Al-Bukhari].

Commentary:
1. This Hadith leads us to the conclusion that if Sadaqah (charity), goes to a needy son of a Muslim, there is no need to take it back from him for the reason that the father had intended to give it to a deserving person. The former gets the reward for it on account of his Niyyah (intention). This however, will be reckoned as Nafli Sadaqah (voluntary charity) because the obligatory Zakat (Sadaqah) cannot be given to the donor's own dependents.

2. It is permissible in Shari`ah to make someone a Wakil (attorney or agent) for Sadaqah.

3. It does not amount to disobedience on the part of a son to take his father to a competent authority or scholar to know the legal position on any issue, in the same way, as mutual discussion and debate on matters of Shari`ah does not amount to insolence. (Fath Al-Bari, chapter on Zakat).

6. Abu Ishaq Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas (May Allah be pleased with him) (one of the ten who had been given the glad tidings of entry into Jannah) narrated: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) visited me in my illness which became severe in the year of Hajjat-ul-Wada` (Farewell Pilgrimage). I said, "O Messenger of Allah, you can see the pain which I am suffering and I am a man of means and there is none to inherit from me except one daughter. Should I give two-thirds of my property in charity?'' He (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, "No". I asked him, "Then half?'' He said, "No". Then I asked, "Can I give away one-third". He said, "Give away one-third, and that is still too much. It is better to leave your heirs well-off than to leave them poor, begging people. You will not expend a thing in charity for the sake of Allah, but you will be rewarded for it; even the morsel of food which you feed your wife''. I said, "O Messenger of Allah, would I survive my companions?'' He said, "If you survive others and accomplish a thing for the sake of Allah, you would gain higher ranking and standing. You will survive them ... your survival will be beneficial to people (the Muslim) and harmful to others (the enemies of Islam). You will survive others till the people will derive benefit from you, and others would be harmed by you.'' Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) further said, "O Allah, complete for my Companions their emigration and do not cause them to retract.'' Sa`d bin Khaulah was unfortunate. Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) lamented his death as he died in Makkah.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Commentary:  In spite of all their love for it, the Companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) did not like to die in a city from which they emigrated for the sake of Allah. For this reason Sa`d (May Allah be pleased with him) was afraid of dying in Makkah. The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) prayed for the accomplishment of Sa`d's emigration and expressed regret over the misfortune of  Sa`d bin Khaulah. The latter died in Makkah.

Conclusion:
1. The Hadith lays down that in the course of a disease which seems to prove fatal, one cannot give more than one-third of the property in charity.

2. It is also emphasized that one gets reward even for what he spends on his wife and children.

3. One can report to others his ailment or to seek treatment and ask them to supplicate from him.

4. In the matter of Sadaqah (charity), which one gives to seek the Pleasure of Allah, his closest relatives. should always have priority and preference over others.

7. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, "Allah does not look at your figures, nor at your attire but He looks at your hearts and accomplishments".
[Muslim].

Commentary:  This Hadith highlights the importance of sincerity and good intention. It is, therefore, essential that every noble action should be based on these two virtues; and heart should be free from  all such things that destroy noble deeds. Hypocrisy, ostentation, greed for wealth, riches and other wordly things fall in the category of such evils. Since the true condition of heart is known to Allah alone, the true position of one's actions will be known on the Day of  Resurrection when one will be requited for them by Alah. In this world, one will be treated according to his apparent condition while his insight will be left to Allah.

8. Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Messenger of Allah  (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) was asked about who fights in the  battlefield out of valour, or out of  zeal, or out of  hypocrisy, which of this is considered as fighting in the cause of Allah? He said: "He who fights in order that the Word of Allah remains the supreme, is considered as fighting in the cause of Allah".
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Commentary: Since one's action will be evaluated in terms of intention, so he alone would be a Mujahid (warrior in the cause of Deen) who fights to glorify the Name of Allah.

9. Abu Bakrah Ath-Thaqafi (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said: "When two Muslims are engaged in a combat against each other with their sword's and one is killed, both are doomed to Hell". I said, "O Messenger of Allah! As to the one who kills, it is understandable, but why the slain one?" He (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) replied: "He was eager to kill his opponent".
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Commentary:  This Hadith leads to the conclusion that one would be punished for such sinful intention for which he has made a firm determination, and for the commitment of which he has adopted necessary measures, even if he does not succeed in committing it because of certain obstruction. Thus determination is different from a suggestion of the devil. The latter is excusable while one is accountable for his determination. However, what is mentioned in the Hadith will happen when Muslims  fight among themselves for worldly honour and prejudices, and no religious issue would be the cause of their conflict, because in the latter case, it is possible that both might be depending on their own Ijtihad (exercise of opinion) for which they may be excused.

10. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that: The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said: "The reward for Salat performed by a person in congregation is more than 20 times greater than that of the Salat performed in one's house or shop. When one performs Wudu' perfectly and then proceeds to the mosque with the sole intention of performing Salat, then for every step he takes towards the mosque, he is upgraded one degree in reward and one of his sins is eliminated until he enters the mosque, and when he enters the mosque, he is considered as performing Salat as long as it is the Salat which prevents him (from leaving the mosque); and the angels keep on supplicating Allah for him as long as he remains in his place of prayer. They say: 'O Allah! have mercy on him; O Allah! forgive his sins; O Allah! accept his repentance'. This will carry on as long as he does not pass wind".
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Commentary:  This Hadith shows that although it is permissible to perform Salat individually in market places and houses, but its collective performance in the mosque is 25, 26, or 27 times more meritorious, as mentioned in other Ahadith.

11. `Abdullah bin `Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported:  Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said that Allah, the Glorious, said: "Verily, Allah (SWT) has ordered that the good and the bad deeds be written down. Then He explained it clearly how (to write): He who intends to do a good deed but he does not do it, then Allah records it for him as a full good deed, but if  he carries out his intention, then Allah the Exalted, writes it down for him as from ten to seven hundred folds, and even more. But if he intends to do an evil act and has not done it, then Allah writes it down with Him as a full good deed, but if he intends it and has done it, Allah writes it down as one bad deed".
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Commentary:  What the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) relates to Allah is called Hadith Qudsi (Sacred Tradition). Such Hadith is revealed to the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) by means of Ilham (inspiration). This Hadith mentions the magnitude of Divine blessings which He bestows upon His faithful slaves on the Day of  Resurrection.

12. `Abdullah bin `Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with them) narrated that: He heard Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) as saying: "Three men, amongst those who came before you, set out until night came and they reached a cave, so they entered it. A rock fell down from the mountain and blocked the entrance of the cave. They said: `Nothing will save you from this unless you supplicate to Allah by virtue of a righteous deed you have done.' Thereupon, one of them said: `O Allah! I had parents who were old, and I used to offer them milk before any of my children or slaves. One day, I went far away in search of grazing and could not come back until they had slept. When I milked as usual and brought the drink I found them both asleep. I hated to disturb them and also disliked to give milk to my children before them. My children were crying out of hunger at my feet but I awaited with the bowl in my hand for them to wake up. When they awoke at dawn, they drank milk. O Allah! If  I did so to seek Your Pleasure, then deliver us from the distress caused by the rock'. The rock moved slightly but they were unable to escape. The next said: `O Allah! I had a cousin whom I loved more than any one else (in another version he said: as a man can love a woman). I wanted to have sexual intercourse with her but she refused. Hard pressed in a year of famine, she approached me. I gave her one hundred and twenty dinars on condition that she would yield herself to me. She agreed and when we got together (for sexual intercourse), she said: Fear Allah and do not break the seal unlawfully. I moved away from her in spite of the fact that I loved her most passionately; and I let her keep the money I had given her. O Allah! If I did that to seek Your Pleasure, then, remove the distress in which we are.' The rock moved aside a bit further but they were still unable to get out. The third one said: `O Allah! I hired some labourers and paid them their wages except one of them departed without taking his due. I invested his money in business and the business prospered greatly. After a long time, he came to me and said: O slave of Allah! Pay me my dues. I said: All that you see is yours - camels, cattle, goats and slaves. He said: O slave of Allah! Do not mock at me. I assured him that I was not joking. So he took all the things and went away. He spared nothing. O Allah! If  I did so seeking Your Pleasure, then relieve us of our distress.' The rock slipped aside and they got out walking freely".
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Commentary:
1. It is permissible to pray through our virtuous deeds. But to make someone a medium for it, is an innovation in Deen which should be avoided for two major reasons. Firstly, there is no evidence in Shari`ah to support this. Secondly, it is against the practice of Khair-ul-Qurun, the best of generations. (This term is used for the first three generations of Muslims, the one in which the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) lived and the two following).

2.  Preference should be given to the service of parents, even over the service of one's own wife and children.

3. To abstain from sins out of fear of Allah is a highly meritorious act.

4. Labourers should always be treated fairly. If someone has paid to a labourer less than his due, it should be paid to him in a decent manner.

5. Any supplication which is made sincerely, and with real sense of humbleness is granted by Allah.

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